Tuesday, February 7, 2017

Ethiopias ancient law system Seera Gumaa Oromo




Ethiopian Ancient law system
Seera Gumaa Oromo

Ethiopian Ancient law system
Seera Gumaa Oromo
Ok so we have the judicial system in America, and its not designed for African Americans. Its setup as a way to make money, or it is a for profit corporation. That’s crazy in itself if you look at the fact that black people created the judicial system. I wanted to explore more of the ancient law systems that were setup. We are always told this lie that Africans invented slavery. That’s hard for me to believe when you can trace back these ancient tribes and they had these systems in place thousands of years ago. Ok lets look at two controversial situations in history. One is Egyptian slavery of The Hebrew, and the other is Egyptian slavery of The Nubians. With the African systems they had in place for law, it would have been no place for slavery in that system. Now lets say The Hebrew were the Hyksos as prisoners of war. They wouldn’t have kept them there for that length of time, nor would they have had them anywhere near sacred Pyramids or structures. Plus the Bible is not a History book. Secondly lets look at the inscription in the Palermo Stone. It says that the Egyptians and the Nubians got into a war with each other, and Egypt won the battle. This was before the dynasties formed. They later made amends and formed a nation. The only thing about that is people try to say Nubians were slaves to the Egyptians. So lets examine that. In the Palermo Stone it says Egypt won the war and received 200,000 herds of cattle. Now if you know anything about African ancient law and its tribute system, you know that losers of battles were in major debt to the winner, not only spoils of war, but an extended period beyond that. This might have been the system that was in place, and through them paying tribute, they might have made an agreement to unite.
One other area to look at is African judicial system being enforced by families, because remember at one time in Africa everyone moved as individual families. If crimes were committed, it effected the whole family, because it would take away from the families saved livestock and agriculture that they had planned out to get through a certain time. So you could imagine that they would keep each other in line, because last thing you want, is for a crime to be committed and you have to offer up over half your livestock through a time of famine. I can imagine this could cause families to break off from the tribe if a crime was committed, or if they were charged with a crime, they did not commit. This would be another reason for migration of a tribe from one area to the next.
Ok now lets talk about Ethiopians ancient law system and tribute system called Seera Gumaa Oromo
By: Getachew Ch. Nadhabaasaa
What is Seera Gumaa Oromoo?
Seera Gumaa is Oromo people’s long-continued conventional body of rules of blood compensation for making and restoring peace. It enforces and reinforces the killer/murderer (the offender) to pay symbolic balance of compensation (in former times in kind, for example heads of cattle, nowadays in cash) to the nearest relatives of the person one had killed (victim). When the killer is influenced and enforced to pay compensation, members of the victim’s clan, the lineage group in particular, are solemnly appeased to accept the compensation for peace. They accept the peace not only for themselves but for those biologically and socially interconnected Oromo clans, who are not localised but dispersed all over the Horn of Africa.
Seera gumaa Oromoo also stipulates mechanisms that can deter potential threats of conflict escalation to perpetual retaliation. As an institution, it lays fundamental rules governing behavioural activities to be followed, that the Oromos are timely urged to follow and work on it for reconciliation (araara).Both parties, the offenders as gumaa payers, and the defenders as gumaa receivers, are governed by the rules and procedures of Seera Tumaa Oromoo (in this case seera gumaa) in restoring peace. It is an impressive institution, in its intensity, very ideal to the Oromo people of the Horn of Africa that crowns the positive rule of peace.
Procedures of Conducting Gumaa for Peace
 The process of conducting gumaa for peace essentially requires the involvement of three important bodies (in some cases four)
1. The Hayyuus: Magistrates of the Gadaa System
 The hayyuus are the ones who are acting on behave of peace (nagaa/nagayaa) of the nation at large. They are peace-makers who take initiative and start a go between two feuding parties for peace. They are not for jaarsumma who would work as fact finders and read the final verdict. They are working on the discernible existing facts. They exert their cumulative knowledge, wisdom, patience and effort to defuse the vibrating tension before its explosion to retaliation. The hayyuus are the ones who can revitalise the ailing peace of the nation to normal life.
The Power of Oromo Sacred Objects
 The hayyuus are accompanied by Oromos’ powerful sacred objects. Among them: Kallacha, Caaccuu, Alangee, Cokoo (ritual spear) inherited from past ancestors, and bridled horses (cancala/luugama). These are indispensable sacred objects, carried by appropriate persons that accompany the hayyuus whenever they go to the victim’s village for peace. The sacred power for araara is essentially believed to have been encapsulated in these millennium old Oromo sacred objects. They persist to exist and continue to offer their sacred services in cleaning the polluted peace of the people despite condemnation to extinction by foreign-injected elements against their sacredness.
2. Clan members of the killer (an offender)
These are groups of gumaa payers and peace givers. It is not only the individual who has committed the murder whose hand is believed to be full of blood. The action he has taken against the life of the man is also believed to have contaminated hands of his clan members. They are the ones who bear primary obligation to clean the spoiled hands of their brother (direct committer of the crime) and themselves, too
3. Clan members of the victim (a defender)
These are gumaa receivers, peace accepters and restorers. It is viewed as if members of the victim’s clan are also killed. As a reason, they may raise their spears against the killers for revenge if they are not instantly intervened and deterred by the reconciling power of the hayyuus.
Preliminary Requisites
 The gumaa norms of conduct for reconciliation require the defender’s party (victim’s family/clan) to accept the appeasement of the hayyuus for araara (reconciliation).It requires patience and wisdom of knowledge on the part of the hayuus to persuade them, in particular, those near relatives of the victim’s paternal lineage. It may not be an easy task to get their consent at initial stages. However, since they cannot be above the conventionally agreed upon norms of the society, they ultimately come to comply with the rules of the institution in exchange for symbolic compensation.
The victim’s family (clan) cannot ask the hayyuus to fix either the maximum or the minimum amount of compensation they accept or reject, nor do they appeal to their “foes” for compensation. Its procedural activities are regulated as enshrouded in the seeraa gumaa Oromoo tradition for peace. It is neither for punishment nor a debate of a win-to-win solution.
Members of the killer’s clan, if they are truly in need of peace, may urgently appeal to the hayyuus to undertake the gumma peace process. They, members of the killer’s clan, by themselves, cannot directly go to the families of the victim and appeal to them for peace; or acknowledge the man’s offensive action against life. They do not even directly look at their faces, especially at members of the victim’s paternal lineage. They have to strictly control their feet not to trespass upon the areas where lineage members of the victims are living. Failure to strictly follow these custom-regulated rules can thwart the beginning of the peace process, leave alone to come to reconciliation.
The Buyyaa Ceremony: The Final Chapter of the Peace Process
By holding what is known as the buyyaa ceremony, the gumaa reconciliation process will be coming to an end, which will be held at meadow where abundant green grasses, trees and a river that flows throughout the year are available. On this day, the payment of blood compensation, as decided by the hayyuus in light of seera gumaa, will be officially announced and handed to the nearest relative of the deceased (killed) person. If it is committed in self-defence or happened by accident, the amount will be less than the intent one. The killer’s clan cannot ask the hayyuus for revision. What the hayyuus could do is to ask the victim’s clan (gumaa receivers) to reduce for them certain amounts which is, in most cases, acceptable.
In the process of gumaa payment for peace, the other important point to be stressed is that, the killer is totally deprived of paying, even a single cent, out of his handhuuraa (private property), even if he is a millionaire. He is enforced to solicit for contribution tying his hands with chain. The chain shows the impurity (pollution) of his hands, contaminated by the pure blood of the man he had deliberately or desperately a cause to spill. He is now begging other innocents to help him clean his “xurii” (=dirty) out of his hands.
It is on this ceremony, that the killer(s) is officially presented to the public. In areas where the Waataa communities are living among the Oromos, the man is brought to the ceremony by Waataa ritual leader, the guardian of Waataa’s sacred object called botowaa. Until this day comes; the man stays under Waataa’s full protection. No one dares to attack him or molests him as far as he is under Waataa’s protection.
At this place, a ram is immolated whose meat is left only for birds of prey. The killer and the victim’s near relative will go to the house of the killer, sit side by side and sleep together at night. An exultant woman, with honey full of sour gourd, receives them at the gate. An uncastrated steer is immolated at the gate. At night, they sleep together. Their toes are tied to each other by a piece of intestine from the immolated steer. In the morning one of the killer’s sisters cuts the intestine from their toes with a sharp edge of a spear. The End!
The buyyaa ceremony celebrates the true face of gumaa for the restoration of peace, deterring and liquidating all possibilities of retaliatory vengeances. It ushers the termination of looking each other as “foes” (blood feuds) or seeking for revenge. It signifies the return of peace to its equinoctial position. It radiates a luminous peace to all members of the community at large.
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